By Dawn Kirby
Literacy as Nurture: Learning, Improving, and Having Fun
Try a mini-experiment. Think about activities in which you engage for fun, for pure joy and pleasure. Mentally list a few.
Now, consider these questions:
- Does anyone officially grade you on that activity?
- Are you required to write a paper about why you like to engage in the activity?
- Do the state and federal governments mandate hours of annual testing that you must pass in order to engage in the activity?
- Must you pass a test before you are allowed to set more challenging goals for yourself and improve your abilities to perform your activity?
- If all of the above were true, how long would you consider your fun activity to be, well, fun? How often would you spend your scarce spare time doing it?
Unless your spare-time, pleasurable activity is being a pilot or performing surgery, none of the above conditions would probably motivate you to participate in the activity of your choice for the delight of it all. Is the same true for students who actually like to read and write? Absolutely.
Think also about students who struggle with reading and writing. Do batteries of tests motivate them to try harder, read more books, write more essays? Do they feel good about themselves when their test scores are low?
Modeling to Nurture Literacy
It’s a basic rule of human nature that people do what they enjoy. When students are encouraged to think, to see value and delight in reading and writing, they will read and write more often. Simply put, practice guided by knowledgeable teachers and parents who talk about what they read and write for business or in their spare time increases learners’ capabilities with texts and literacy. Teachers and parents are instrumental in modeling for students that reading and writing are enjoyable, informational, and beneficial, even if not always easy.
When families watch the news together, discuss the content of a magazine article, debate the virtues of a main character in a novel they’ve read, and talk about how the internet is changing the very notion of “text,” they are engaged in authentic literacy practices. They make literacy a normal and important part of everyday family life.
Teaching to Nurture Literacy
Literacy abilities improve when teachers and students are free to engage critically with various types of texts, analyze specific techniques of writing that authors use, interact with ideas generated by texts, and enjoy reading and writing as forms of expression and communication. Why? For one reason, practice makes us better at what we do.
Teachers and parents alike may be thinking, “What?! Take time away from real teaching? Use in-class time to read and write for pleasure?”
Definitely. That’s a key practice for nurturing literacy.
If we want to nurture life-long readers and writers, we need to put the high-stakes tests away in favor of authentic assessments; allow teachers to use best literacy practices in their classrooms rather than teach to the test; and foster productive relationships among parents, students, and teachers to promote an enjoyment of reading and writing.
It takes some effort to find the types of texts that students may enjoy reading and writing. Often, teachers use Reading Interest Inventories and casual conversations in and out of class to help students discover topics and genres that they would enjoy exploring. Once students are hooked, providing in-class time for pleasurable reading and writing helps foster their nascent literacy habit.
Nurturing Literacy through Testing?
Anyone reading research on high-stakes testing discovers that such testing doesn’t necessarily improve learning. While Hillocks (2002) found that what is on the test gets taught more often than material not on the test, other researchers (Kohn, 2011; Bower & Thomas, eds., 2013) have found that the culture of mandated testing is detrimental to quality learning environments. Mandated high-stakes tests, often created by those who are not educators, may actually impede learning.
I certainly support having high expectations and standards for learning and teaching. Nonetheless, squeezing the joy from learning in order to succeed on high-stakes tests is a trend that needs to change—fast—if we are to have a literate populace. Cast your vote on educational issues in favor of learning, not false testing and mandates that masquerade as educational progress. Let’s make literacy, not testing, the goal of a quality education.
Dawn Kirby is Senior Associate Dean and Professor of English in the College of Humanities and Social Sciences at Utah State University. She began her career as a high school English teacher and is deeply grateful to the English teachers she and her family have encountered as students and as colleagues. Her books offer a plethora of innovative strategies for teachers actively to support literacy, teach writing, and follow best practices without selling their souls.